Partial Bibliography on Causation: Part I

Achinstein, Peter. 1983. The Nature of Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, John. 1938. "The Problem of Causality." Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 16: 127&endash;42.

Anscombe, Elizabeth. 1971. Causality and Determinism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Arntzenius, Frank. 1990. "Physics and Common Causes." Synthese 82: 77&endash;96.

_____. 1993. "The Common Cause Principle." In Hull, D., M. Forbes, and K. Okruhlik, eds. PSA 1992, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 227&endash;37.

Aronson, Jerrold. 1971a. "On the Grammar of Cause." Synthese 22: 414&endash;30.

_____. 1971b. "The Legacy of Hume’s Analysis of Causation." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 2: 135&endash;57.

Barnes, Eric. 1992. "Explanatory Unification and the Problem of Asymmetry." Philosophy of Science 59: 558&endash;71.

Beauchamp, Thomas and Alexander Rosenberg. 1981. Hume and the Problem of Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, John. 1964. "On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox." Physics 1: 195&endash;200.

_____. 1966. "On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics." Reviews of Modern Physics 38: 447&endash;52.

Bennett, Jonathan. 1984. "Counterfactuals and Temporal Direction." Philosophical Review 93: 57&endash;91.

_____. 1988. Events and Their Names. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.

Berofsky, Bernard. 1971. Determinism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

_____. 1977. "Review of The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation." Journal of Philosophy 74: 103&endash;18.

Braddon-Mitchell, David. 1993. "The Microstructural Causation Hypothesis." Erkenntnis 39: 257&endash;83.

Bradie, Michael. 1984. "Recent Work on Criteria for Event Identity, 1967&endash;1979." Philosophy Research Archives, pp. 29&endash;77.

Brand, Myles. 1977. "Identity Conditions for Events." American Philosophical Quarterly 14: 329&endash;37.

_____. 1980. "Simultaneous Causation." In van Inwagen (1980), pp. 137-53.

Bridgman, P. 1938. "Operational Analysis." Philosophy of Science 5: 114&endash;31.

Bromberger, Sylvain. 1966. "Why Questions." In R. Colodny, ed. Mind and Cosmos: Essays in Contemporary Science and Philosophy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 86&endash;111.

Brown, Bryson. 1992. "Defending Backwards Causation." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22: 429&endash;44.

Byerly, Henry. 1979. "Substantial Causes and Nomic Determination." Philosophy of Science 46: 57&endash;81.

_____. 1990. "Causes and Laws: The Asymmetry Puzzle." In A. Fine, M. Forbes, and L. Wessels, eds. PSA 1990, vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 545&endash;55.

Carroll, John. 1988. "General Causation." In A. Fine and J. Leplin, eds. PSA 1988, vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 311&endash;17.

_____. 1991. "Property-Level Causation?" Philosophical Studies 63: 245&endash;70.

Cartwright, Nancy. 1979. "Causal Laws and Effective Strategies." Nos 13. Rpt. in Cartwright 1983, pp. 21&endash;43.

_____. 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

_____. 1989. Nature’s Capacities and Their Measurement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

_____. 1995. "Probabilities and Experiments." Journal of Econometrics 67: 47&endash;59.

CastaÒeda, Hector-Neri. 1980. "Causes, Energy and Constant Conjunctions." In van Inwagen (1980), pp. 81-108.

_____. 1984. "Causes, Causity and Energy." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 17&endash;28.

Clendinnen, F. John. 1992. "Nomic Dependence and Causation." Philosophy of Science 59: 341&endash;60.

Collingwood, R. G. 1940. An Essay on Metaphysics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cushing, James and Ernan McMullin, eds. 1989. The Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.

Davidson, Donald. 1980. Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

_____. 1985. "Reply to Quine on Events." In LePore and McLaughlin (1985), pp. 172&endash;6.

Davis, Wayne. 1980. "Swain’s Counterfactual Analysis of Causation." Philosophical Studies 38: 169&endash;76.

Dieks, D. 1981. "A Note on Causation and the Flow of Energy." Erkenntnis 16: 103&endash;8.

Dowe, Phil. 1992a. "Process Causality and Asymmetry." Erkenntnis 37: 179&endash;96.

_____. 1992b. "Wesley Salmon’s Process Theory of Causality and the Conserved Quantity Theory." Philosophy of Science 59: 195&endash;216.

_____. 1995. "Causality and Conserved Quantities: A Reply to Salmon." Philosophy of Science 62: 321&endash;33.

_____. 1996. "Backwards Causation and the Direction of Causal Processes." Mind 105: 227&endash;48.

Dretske, Fred. 1977. "Referring to Events." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2: 90&endash;9.

Dretske, Fred and Aaron Snyder. 1972. "Causal Irregularity." Philosophy of Science 39: 69&endash;71.

Dretske, Fred and Berent EnÁ. 1984. "Causal Theories of Knowledge." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 517&endash;28.

Dummett, Michael. 1964. "Bringing About the Past." Philosophical Review 73: 338&endash;59.

DuprÈ, John. 1984. "Probabilistic Causality Emancipated." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 169&endash;75.

_____. 1993. The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Earman, John. 1976. "Causation: A Matter of Life and Death." Journal of Philosophy 73: 5&endash;25.

Eells, Ellery. 1987. "Probabilistic Causality: Reply to John DuprÈ." Philosophy of Science 54: 105&endash;14.

_____. 1991. Probabilistic Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Eells, Ellery and Elliott Sober. 1983. "Probabilistic Causality and the Question of Transitivity." Philosophy of Science 50: 35&endash;57.

Ehring, Douglas. 1982. "Causal Asymmetry." Journal of Philosophy 79: 761&endash;74.

_____. 1997. Causation and Persistence: A Theory of Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Einstein, A., B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen. 1935. "Can a Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?" Physical Review 47: 777&endash;80.

Elby, Andrew. 1992. "Should We Explain the EPR Correlations Causally?" Philosophy of Science 59: 16&endash;25.

Engle, R., D. Hendry, and J. Richard. 1983. "Exogeneity." Econometrica 51: 277&endash;304.

Fair, David. 1979. "Causation and the Flow of Energy." Erkenntnis 14: 219&endash;50.

Faust, C. H. and T. H. Johnson, ed. 1935. Jonathan Edwards. New York: ??.

Festa, Roberto. 1993. Optimum Inductive Methods. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Fetzer, J. H. (1981), SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE (Dordrecht, Holland:  D. Reidel, 1981).
Fetzer, J. H. (1993), PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (New York, NY:  Paragon House, 1993).

Fine, Arthur. 1987. The Shaky Game. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Forster, Malcolm. 1988. "Sober’s Principle of Common Cause and the Problem of Comparing Incomplete Hypotheses." Philosophy of Science 55: 538&endash;59.

_____. 1996a. "The GHZ Version of Bell’s Argument." Unpublished manuscript.

_____. 1996b. "The Symmetry of Probabilities and the Direction of Causal Arrows." unpublished manuscript.

Foster, J. A. 1975. "Testing the Cement: An Examination of Mackie on Causation." Inquiry 18: 487&endash;98.

Frankel, Lois. 1986. "Mutual Causation, Simultaneity and Event Description." Philo-sophical Studies 49: 361&endash;72.

Freudlich, Y. 1977. "The Causation Recipe." Dialogue 16: 472&endash;84.

Friedman, Michael. 1974. "Explanation and Scientific Understanding." Journal of Philosophy 71: 5&endash;19.

Gasking, Douglas. 1955. "Causation and Recipes." Mind 64: 479&endash;87.

Glymour, Clark. 1978. "Two Flagpoles Are More Paradoxical Than One." Philosophy of Science 45: 118&endash;19.

_____. 1980. "Explanations, Tests, Unity and Necessity." Nos 14: 31&endash;52.

Glymour, Clark, Richard Scheines, Peter Spirtes, and Kevin Kelly. 1987. Discovering Causal Structure. New York: Academic Press, 1987.

Goggans, Phillip. 1992. "Do the Closest Possible Worlds Contain Miracles?" Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 73: 137&endash;49.

Goldman, Alvin. 1970. A Theory of Human Action. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Good, I. J. 1961. "A Causal Calculus, I&endash;II." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 11: 305&endash;18, 12: 43&endash;51.

Goosens, William. 1979. "Causal Chains and Counterfactuals." Journal of Philosophy 76: 489&endash;95.

Gorovitz, Samuel. 1965. "Causal Judgments and Causal Explanations." Journal of Philosophy 62: 695&endash;711.

Granger, C.W.J. 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods." Econometrica 37: 424&endash;38.

Haavelmo, Trygve. 1944. "The Probability Approach to Econometrics." Econometrica 12 (Supplement): iii&endash;118.

Hart, H. L. A. and A. M. HonorÈ. 1959. Causation in the Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hausman, Daniel. 1982. "Causal and Explanatory Asymmetry."In T. Nickles and P. Asquith, eds. PSA 1982, vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 43&endash;54.

_____. 1984. "Causal Priority." Nos 18: 261&endash;79.

_____. 1986. "Causation and Experimentation." American Philosophical Quarterly 23: 143&endash;54.

_____. 1989a. "The Insufficiency of Nomological Explanation." Philosophical Quarterly 39: 22&endash;35.

_____. 1989b. "Ceteris Paribus Clauses and Causality in Economics." In A. Fine and J. Leplin, eds. PSA 1988, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 308&endash;17.

_____. 1990. "Supply and Demand Explanations and their Ceteris Paribus Clauses." Review of Political Economy 2: 168&endash;86.

_____. 1992. "Thresholds, Transitivity, Overdetermination, and Events." Analysis 52: 159&endash;63.

_____. 1993a. "Linking Causal and Explanatory Asymmetries." Philosophy of Science 60: 435&endash;51.

_____. 1993b. "Why Don’t Causes Explain Their Effects?" Synthese 94: 227&endash;44.

_____. 1996. "Causation and Counterfactual Dependence Reconsidered." Nos 30: 55&endash;74.

_____. 1998a. "Causation, Agency, and Independence." Philosophy of Science 63 (Supplement).

_____. 1998b. "Deterministic Causation of Probabilities." Communication and Cognition.

Healey, Richard. 1983. "Temporal and Causal Asymmetry." In Richard Swinburne, ed. Space, Time and Causality. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 79&endash;105.

_____. 1992. "Discussion: Causation, Robustness, and EPR." Philosophy of Science 59: 282&endash;92.

Hempel, Carl. 1965. Aspects of Scientific Explanation. New York: Free Press.

Hesslow, G. 1976. "Two Notes on the Probabilistic Approach to Causality." Philosophy of Science 34: 290&endash;2.

_____. 1981. "Causality and Determinism." Philosophy of Science 48: 591&endash;605.

Hitchcock, Christopher. 1993. "A Generalized Probabilistic Theory of Causal Relevance." Synthese 97: 335&endash;64.

_____. 1995a. "The Mishap at Reichenbach Falls: Singular vs. General Causation." Philosophical Studies 73: 257&endash;91.

_____. 1995b. "Discussion: Salmon on Explanatory Relevance." Philosophy of Science 62: 304&endash;20.

_____. 1996a. "Farewell to Binary Causation." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26: 267&endash;82.

_____. 1996b. "The Mechanist and the Snail." Philosophical Studies 84: 91&endash;105.

_____. 1996c. "The Role of Contrast in Causal and Explanatory Claims." Synthese 107: 395&endash;419.

_____. 1998. "Causal Knowledge: That Great Guide of Human Life." Communication and Cognition.

Honderich, Ted. 1982. "Causes and if p, even if x, still q." Philosophy 57: 291&endash;317.

Hoover, Kevin. 1990. "The Logic of Causal Inference." Economics and Philosophy 6: 207&endash;34.

_____. 1991. "The Causal Direction between Money and Prices." Journal of Monetary Economics 27: 381&endash;423.

_____. 1993. "Causality and Temporal Order in Macroeconomics or Why Even Economists Don’t Know How to Get Causes from Probabilities." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44: 693&endash;710.

_____. 1994. "Econometrics as Observation: the Lucas Critique and the Nature of Econometric Inference." Journal of Economic Methodology 1: 65&endash;80.

_____. 1995. "Comments on Cartwright and Woodward: Causation, Estimation, and Statistics." In Little (1995), pp. 75&endash;89.

Hoover, Kevin and Stephen Perez. 1994. "Post Hoc Ergo Once More: An Evaluation of 'Does Monetary Policy Matter?’ in the Spirit of James Tobin." Journal of Monetary Economics 34: 47&endash;73.

Hoover, Kevin and Steven Sheffrin. 1992. "Causation, Spending, and Taxes: Sand in the Sandbox or Tax Collector for the Welfare State?" American Economic Review 82: 225&endash;48.

Horgan, Terence. 1978. "The Case Against Events." Philosophical Review 87: 28&endash;47.

_____. 1980. "Humean Causation and Kim’s Theory of Events." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 10: 663&endash;79.

Horwich, Paul. 1987. Asymmetries in Time. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hume, David. 1738. A Treatise of Human Nature. Rpt. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

_____. 1748. An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Rpt. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1955.

Humphreys, Paul. 1989. The Chances of Explanation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Irzik, G¸rol. 1996. "Can Causes Be Reduced to Correlations?" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47: 249&endash;70.

Irzik, G¸rol and Eric Meyer. 1987. "Causal Modeling: New Directions for Statistical Explanation." Philosophy of Science. 54: 495&endash;514.

Jeffrey, Richard. 1971. "Statistical Explanation vs. Statistical Inference." In Salmon, ed. 1971, pp. 19&endash;28.

Jobe, Evan. 1976. "A Puzzle Concerning DN Explanation." Philosophy of Science 43: 542&endash;9.

_____. 1985. "Explanation, Causality and Counterfactuals." Philosophy of Science 52: 357&endash;89.

Kendall, M. 1948. The Advanced Theory of Statistics. London: Charles Griffin and Co.

Kiiveri, H. and T. Speed. 1982. "Structural Analysis of Multivariate Data: A Review." In S. Leinhardt, ed. Sociological Methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kim, Jaegwon. 1969. "Events and their Descriptions: Some Considerations." In N. Rescher, ed. Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 198&endash;215.

_____. 1973. "Causation, Nomic Subsumption and the Concept of Event." Journal of Philosophy 70: 217&endash;36.

_____. 1980. "Events as Property Exemplifications." In M. Brand and D. Walton, eds. Action Theory. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 159&endash;77.

_____. 1984. "Epiphenomenal and Supervenient Causation." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 257&endash;70.

Kistler, Max. unpublished. "Causes as Events and Facts."

Kitcher, Philip. 1981. "Explanatory Unification." Philosophy of Science 48: 507&endash;31.

_____. 1989. "Explanatory Unification and the Causal Structure of the World." In Kitcher and Salmon (1989), pp. 410&endash;505.

Kitcher, Philip and Wesley Salmon, eds. 1989. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. vol. 13 Scientific Explanation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Kyburg, Henry. 1965. "Comments." Philosophy of Science 32: 147&endash;51.

Lauwers, Steven. 1978. "A Reexamination of Causal Irregularity." Philosophy of Science 45: 471&endash;3.

Lemmon, E. 1967. "Comments." In N. Rescher, ed. The Logic of Decision and Action. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 96&endash;103.

LePore, E. and B. McLaughlin, eds. 1985. Actions and Events: Perspectives on the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Oxford: Blackwell.

Lewis, David. 1972. "Psychophysical and Theoretical Identification." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67: 642&endash;63.

_____. 1973a. "Causation." Journal of Philosophy 70: 556&endash;67.

_____. 1973b. Counterfactuals. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

_____. 1976. "Probabilities of Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities." Philosophical Review 85: 297&endash;315. Rpt. in Lewis 1986b, pp. 133-56. Rpt. in and cited from Jackson, Frank, ed. Conditionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 76&endash;102.

_____. 1979. "Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow." Nos 13: 455&endash;76.

_____. 1986a. "Causal Explanation." In Lewis 1986b, pp. 214&endash;40.

_____. 1986b. Philosophical Papers. vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press.

_____. 1986c. "Postscripts to ‘Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow.’" In Lewis 1986b, pp. 52&endash;67.

_____. 1986d. "Postscripts to ‘Causation.’" In Lewis 1986b, pp. 173&endash;218.

Little, Daniel, ed. 1995. The Reliability of Economic Models. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Lombard, Lawrence. 1986. Events: A Metaphysical Study. London: Routledge.

McDermott, Michael. 1995. "Lewis on Causal Difference." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73: 129&endash;39.

Mackie, John. 1966. "The Direction of Causation." Philosophical Review 75: 441&endash;66.

_____. 1979. "Mind, Brain, and Causation." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 4: 19&endash;29.

_____. 1980. The Cement of the Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McLaughlin, James. 1925&endash;6. "Proximate Cause." Harvard Law Review 39: 149&endash;99.

Meek, Christopher and Clark Glymour 1994. "Conditioning and Intervening." British Journal for Philosophy of Science 45: 1001&endash;21.

Mellor, D. H. 1995. The Facts of Causation. London: Routledge.

Menzies, Peter. 1989a. "Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis." Philosophy of Science 56: 642&endash;63.

_____. 1989b. "A Unified Account of Causal Relata." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67: 59&endash;83.

_____. 1996. "Probabilistic Causation and the Pre-emption Problem." Mind 105: 85&endash;117.

Menzies, Peter and Huw Price. 1993. "Causation as a Secondary Quality." British Journal for Philosophy of Science 44: 187&endash;203.

Mermin, N. David. 1990. "Quantum Mysteries Revisited." American Journal of Physics 58: 731&endash;4.

Miller, Richard. 1987. Fact and Method. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Orcutt, Guy. 1952. "Actions, Consequences and Causal Relations." Review of Economics and Statistics 34: 305&endash;13.

Otte, Richard. 1981. "A Critique of Suppes’ Theory of Probabilistic Causality." Synthese 48: 167&endash;89.

_____. 1985. "Probabilistic Causality and Simpson’s Paradox." Philosophy of Science 52: 110&endash;25.

_____. 1986. "Reichenbach, Causation, and Explanation." In Fine, Arthur and Peter Machamer., eds. PSA 1986, vol. 1. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 59&endash;65.

Papineau, David. 1985a. "Causal Asymmetry." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36: 273&endash;89.

_____. 1985b. "Probabilities and Causes." Journal of Philosophy 82: 57&endash;74.

_____. 1986. "Causal Factors, Causal Interference, Causal Explanation." Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 50: 115&endash;36.

_____. 1989. "Pure, Mixed and Spurious Probabilities and the Significance for a Reductionist Theory of Causation." In Kitcher and Salmon (1989), pp. 307&endash;48.

_____. 1990. "Causes and Mixed Probabilities." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4: 79&endash;88.

_____. 1991. "Correlations and Causes." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42: 397&endash;412.

_____. 1993. "Can We Reduce Causal Direction to Probabilities?" In Hull, D., M. Forbes, and K. Okruhlik, eds. PSA 1992, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 238&endash;52.

Pearl, Judea. 1993. "Comment: Graphical Models, Causality, and Intervention." Statistical Science 8: 266&endash;9.

_____. 1995. "Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research." Biometrika 82: 669&endash;88.

Pearl, Judea and Thomas Verma. 1994. "A Theory of Inferred Causation." In D. Prawitz, B. Skyrms, and D. WesterstÂhl, eds. Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, IX. Amstersdam: Elsevier, 1994, pp. 789&endash;811.

Pollock, John. 1976. Subjunctive Reasoning. Dordrecht: Reidel.

_____. 1984. "Nomic Probability." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 177&endash;204.

Price, Huw. 1991. "Agency and Probabilistic Causality." British Journal for Philosophy of Science 42: 157&endash;76.

_____. 1992. "Agency and Causal Asymmetry." Mind 101: 501&endash;20.

_____. 1993. "The Direction of Causation: Ramsey’s Ultimate Contingency." In Hull, D., M. Forbes, and K. Okruhlik, eds. PSA 1992, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 253&endash;67.

_____. 1996. Time’s Arrow and Archimedes’ Point: New Directions for the Physics of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Putnam, Hilary. 1962. "The Analytic and the Synthetic." In Herbert Feigl and Grover Maxwell, eds. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. vol. 3. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 350&endash;97.

Quine, W. 1953. "Two Dogmas of Empiricism." In From a Logical Point of View. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 20&endash;46.

_____. 1960. Word and Object. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.

_____. 1985. "Events and Reification." In LePore and McLaughlin (1985), pp. 162&endash;71.

Railton, Peter. 1980. "Explaining Explanation: A Realist Account of Scientific Explanation." Dissertation, Princeton University.

Ray, Greg. 1992. "Probabilistic Causality Reexamined." Erkenntnis 36: 219&endash;44.

Redhead, Michael. 1987. Incompleteness, Nonlocality, and Realism: A Prolegomenon to the Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reichenbach, Hans. 1956. The Direction of Time. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rosen, Deborah. 1978. "In Defense of a Probabilistic Theory of Causality." Philosophy of Science 45: 604&endash;13.

_____. 1982. "A Critique of Deterministic Causality." Philosophical Forum 14: 101&endash;30.

Russell, B. 1913. "On the Notion of Cause." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 13: 1&endash;26.

Salmon, Wesley. 1971. "Statistical Explanation." In Salmon (1971), pp. 29&endash;87.

_____. 1978. "Why Ask, ‘Why?’ An Inquiry Concerning Scientific Explanation." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 51: 683&endash;705.

_____. 1980. "Probabilistic Causality." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 61: 50&endash;74.

_____. 1985. Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

_____. 1994. "Causality without Counterfactuals." Philosophy of Science 61: 297&endash;312.

Salmon, Wesley, ed. Statistical Explanation and Statistical Relevance. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971.

Sanford, David. 1976. "The Direction of Causation and the Direction of Conditionship." Journal of Philosophy 73: 193&endash;207.

_____. 1984. "The Direction of Causation and the Direction of Time." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 53&endash;75.

_____. 1985. "Causal Dependence and Multiplicity." Philosophy 60: 215&endash;30.

Sen, Amartya. 1970. Collective Choice and Social Welfare. San Francisco: Holden-Day.

Simon, Herbert. 1953. "Causal Ordering and Identifiability." In W. Hood and T. Koopmans, eds. Studies in Econometric Method. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 49&endash;74. Rpt. and cited from Simon (1977), pp. 53&endash;80.

_____. Models of Discovery and Other Topics in the Methods of Science. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977.

Simon, Herbert and Nicholas Rescher. 1966. "Cause and Counterfactual." Philosophy of Science 33: 323&endash;40. Rpt. and cited from Simon (1977), pp. 107&endash;31.

Simpson, C. 1951. "The Interpretation of Interaction in Contingency Tables." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 13: 238&endash;41.

Skyrms, Brian. 1980. Causal Necessity: A Pragmatic Investigation of the Necessity of Laws. New Haven: Yale University Press.

_____. 1984. "EPR: Lessons for Metaphysics." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 245&endash;55.

Sober, Eliott. 1985. "Two Concepts of Cause." In Peter Asquith and Philip Kitcher, eds. PSA 1984, vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 405&endash;24.

_____. 1986. "Causal Factors, Causal Inference, Causal Explanation." Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 50: 97&endash;113.

_____. 1987. "Discussion: Parsimony, Likelihood, and the Principle of the Common Cause." Philosophy of Science 54: 465&endash;9.

_____. 1988. "The Principle of the Common Cause." In Fetzer, James, ed. 1988. Probability and Causality: Essays in Honor of Wesley Salmon. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 211&endash;28.

Sober, Elliott and Martin Barrett. 1992. "Conjunctive Forks and Temporally Asymmetric Inference." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 70: 1&endash;23.

Spirtes, Peter, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines. 1993. Causation, Prediction, and Search. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Spohn, Wolfgang. 1983a. "Deterministic and Probabilistic Reasons and Causes." Erkenntnis 19: 371&endash;96.

_____. 1983b. "Probabilistic Causality: from Hume via Suppes to Granger." In M. Galvotti and G. Gambetta, eds. Causalit· e Modelli Probabilistici. Bologna: Clueb, pp. 69&endash;87.

_____. 1990. "Direct and Indirect Causes." Topoi 9: 125&endash;45.

_____. 1991. "A Reason for Explanation: Explanations Provide Stable Reasons." In Wolfgang Spohn, et al. eds. Existence and Explanation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Publishing, pp. 165&endash;96.

_____. 1994. "On Reichenbach’s Principle of the Common Cause." In Salmon, W. and G. Wolters, eds. Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific Theories. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 215&endash;39.

Stegmueller, W. 1973. Personnelle und Statistische Wahrscheinlichkeit. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Suppes, Patrick. 1970. A Probabilistic Theory of Causality. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

_____. 1984. "Conflicting Intuitions about Causality." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 9: 151&endash;68.

Swain, Marshall. 1978. "A Counterfactual Analysis of Event Causation." Philosophical Studies 34: 1&endash;19.

Taylor, Richard. 1964. "Can a Cause Precede its Effect?" The Monist 48: 136&endash;42.

_____. 1966. Action and Purpose. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Teller, Paul. 1989. "Relativity, Relational Holism, and the Bell Inequalities." In Cushing and McMullin (1989), pp. 208&endash;23.

Thomson, Judith. 1977. Acts and Other Events. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

_____. 1985. "Causal Priority: A Comment." Nos 19: 249&endash;53.

Van Fraassen, Bas. 1980. The Scientific Image. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

_____. 1982. "The Charybdis of Realism: Epistemological Implications of Bell’s Inequality." Synthese 52: 25&endash;38.

Van Inwagen, Peter, ed. 1980. Time and Cause. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Verma, Thomas. 1992. "Graphical Aspects of Causal Models." Dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.

Verma, Thomas and Judea Pearl. 1990. "Equivalence and Synthesis of Causal Models." In Bonnisone, P., M. Henrion, L. Kanal, and J. Lemmer, eds. Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier, pp. 220&endash;27.

von Wright, Georg. 1975. Causality and Determinism. New York: Columbia University Press.

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